The picture for rho gdis is relatively complex possibly due to their ability to target multiple rho gtpases and their roles in regulating rho gtpase activity stability and trafficking 11 for instance rho gdi1 is found downregulated in some breast cancer studies 77 but overexpressed in others 78 downregulation of rho gdi2 in bladder cancer . The rho family of gtpases is a family of small 21 kda signaling g proteins and is a subfamily of the ras superfamilythe members of the rho gtpase family have been shown to regulate many aspects of intracellular actin dynamics and are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms including yeasts and some plants three members of the family have been studied in detail cdc42 rac1 and rhoa. The rho gtpases rhoa rac1 and cdc42 are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics although many in vitro and in vivo data indicate tumor promoting effects of activated rho gtpases also . The ability of rho gtpase family members to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics cell adhesion and cell migration points to a central role in cancer cell invasion and metastasis the possible roles of the different rho gtpases in different steps of cancer progression are discussed below 21 rho subfamily. The rho gtpases in cancer is the first volume to collect and summarize the current understanding of the rho gtpases and their involvement in the progression of human cancer the critical role of the rho gtpases their regulatory proteins and their effectors in cancer progression has become increasingly evident over the past decade
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